Manufacturing of Red wine – University School Of Hotel Management & Catering Technology(RBU)
- May 15, 2018
- Posted by: Rayat Bahra
- Category: Catering and Hotel Management
University School Of Hotel Management & Catering Technology(USHMCT) is one of the Best Hotel Management College in Chandigarh under Rayat Bahra University (RBU) and Ms Cassandra Roberts, the Dean for USHMCT shared her experience in Hotel Management industry. She explained how red wine is manufactured.
Manufacturing of Red wine
Still wines are also known as Table wines, because it does not have any fizziness character in it. And the utensils used in such wines manufacturing are “still” so it is in variously known as still wine. These wines are the base for various other wines manufacture. Viz. Fortified, Sparkling and Aromatizes wines etc.
There are various steps in the manufacturing of still wine:-
Crushing:-The process in which whole grapes are pressed or lightly crushed to produce must. In some cases destalking (removing the stems from grapes) is done during crushing process. But in other cases they are left in the must. The must is then transferred to the fermenting tanks made of wood (a traditional material) or plastic lined, fibre glass or stainless steel tanks which are easier to clean and maintain. Stainless steel in particular allows the temperature of fermenting must to be more precisely controlled.
Initially the workers at the winery were using a specially designed shoes for crushing the grapes know as “ Zapotas de pisar”.
Modern presses are usually enclosed and mechanically controlled for maximum efficiency. “French vaslin press”- the most widely used (Horizontal and stainless steel press).
Fermentation:-The natural yeast are present on the outers skins of grapes but now a day’s commercial yeast rather than natural ones. Because commercial yeasts allow the fermentation process to be better controlled to produce the desired quality of wine.
Different fermentation processes are used to vary the chemical composition of the “must” so as to produce a particular end product. White wines are usually fermented in a closed container to prevent oxidation resulting from contact with air. Red wines are usually fermented in open containers as they can be fermented at higher temperature; thereby producing more violent fermentation that prevents oxidation. White wines should ferment slowly at relatively low temperature, so as to retain the freshness and fruity flavour. Temperature should between 45*-65*F (7*-18*C).
For red wines the temperature should be between 70*-90*F (21*-32*C).
In some cases, cold fermentation is carried out to produce the wines. The temperature for this, ranges from 54*-59*F (12*-15*C) for whites and 65*-70*F (18-21*C) for reds. This adds a fresh, fruity flavour to the wine.
Note:- The juice of all grapes is white and in the manufacturing of those white wines the skins are removed from must before the fermentation begins.
White wines can be made from the juices of either white or red grapes. The colour of rose’ and white wines comes from the skin of red grapes and in the manufacturing of those wine the skins are not removed before fermentation. For red wines, the skins may remain in the fermenting vessel until the end of fermentation which can take up to two or three weeks.
For both Rose’ & Red wines, the colouring matter & tannin are extracted from the skins, in a process known as “Vatting” ( Cuvasion, French).
Short vatting – Wine with fruitiness.
Long vatting – Wines with depth of flavour and longevity.
In case of still wines, carbon dioxide gas is allowed to escape. Fermentation may end up to two weeks or until the alcohol content is high enough (usually 14% by volume) to kill any remaining yeast that would stop the fermentation. The rate of fermentation is controlled in part by amount of sugar present in the grape juice.
C6H12O6 + Zymase—Yeast——-→ 2C2H5OH + 2CO2
Racking: -After the fermentation is complete, the wine is placed in casks, barrels or tanks. The lees particles settle in the casks. From time to time the wine is racked or transferred to new casks or tanks, leaving the lees behind so that the racked wine can settle further. This can be done several times until it is clear and lees to be removed, some wines need to be filtered.
Maturing:-After racking, most wines are allowed to mature further. Rose’ and white wines are matured in large stainless steel or glass lined containers. White wines are matured for only few months so that they will retain their youthful characteristics. They are bottled relatively quickly.
Red wines-matured in casks made of “Oak”. Porous oak wood allows the air to interact with the maturing wine to produce a mellower product and help develop the wines particular character. Most wines are matured or aged in large stainless steel, concrete or wood containers. The length of wine is aged affects its color, aroma and flavor. g.if a wine is aged for a long time in an oak vat, its color will deepen.
After maturing, the wine is filtered to help stabilize it. It is also known as “finning”or “clarifying”. Finning removes solid particles still in the wine. The wine can be clarified by adding egg white (albumen), gelatin or bentonite (fine clay) which sinks to the bottom of the vat taking particles in the wine down with them.
In some cases pasteurization (60*C or 149*F) heated & rapidly cooling it. In this process the harmful bacteria are killed to stabilize the wine.
Some wine makers use “Cold filteration” or stabilization which requires chilling the wines to several degrees below freezing. This precipitates harmless wine crystals known as “Tartarates” which can then be removed. After the final filtering he wine is ready for bottling.
Bottling: -Final step in wine manufacturing in bottling. Bottles are more prominent and convenient method for storing wine than are barrels/casks. Most wines continue to improve or age in bottle. This continued ageing is shorter for white than for Reds. Some notable Reds needs years for ageing. This ageing in bottle is caused by various elements prisoner’s in the wine (such as acids, pigments and tannins), interacting and combining with one another to create the wines specific character.
Most wines bottles are blends of several wines. Only the very best wines are not blended. Blending can often produce a fine wine and it ensures a wine that will ensure satisfaction of its customers. Blending is also sometimes necessary when the grapes from the bad harvest of a particular vineyard are used. Blending is to ensure the products consistency from year to year. Wine is not a standard product and its quality can differ from year to year even when made from grapes from the same vineyard.
Extremes of temperature can prematurely age a wine and/or cause it to oxidize. And if the wine is continually agitated during shipping, that can also cause premature ageing.
Most quality wine bottles are stopped with porous cork, as the continued air contact is important. Only minute quantities of air do get through the cork, but it is enough to make the difference. “Cork” is made from the bark of a type of an Oak tree and only grows in certain European countries such as Portugal. But nowadays as trees are protected by government decree so fiber board has replaced casks.
For wines bottles that have been corked, it is important that they should be stored and aged on their sides. In this way, the wine is kept in contact with the cork and keeps it moist. If these wines are stored upright, the cork will dry out; there will be too much air contact and the wine will spoil.
The wine bottles casks are usually blended with the name of the winery shipper and the year of bottling.
Manufacturing of the wine taught under Hotel Management course at RBU which is one of the top University in Punjab.
Hotel Management industry is an ever evolving industry and courses offered by Rayat Bahra University under Hotel Management are:
Bachelor of Hotel Management
Bachelor Of Hotel Management & Catering Technology
Sky rocket your career with Best University in Chandigarh Rayat Bahra University