Champagne manufacturing Method by University School Of Hotel Management & Catering Technology(USHMCT)
- May 19, 2018
- Posted by: Rayat Bahra
- Category: Catering and Hotel Management
University School Of Hotel Management & Catering Technology(USHMCT) is one of the Best Hotel Management College in Chandigarh under Rayat Bahra University (RBU) and Ms Cassandra Roberts the Dean for USHMCT shared her experience in Hotel Management industry. She explained how champagne is manufactured.
Champagne may be made from one or more of three grape varieties- Chardonnay, Pinot Noir and Pinot Meuniere. Wine made from these grape varieties are subjected to the so called Method champnoise, the complexities of which are explained below but essentially involve a second fermentation inside the bottle which they are sold.
Grapes – Only three grapes are permitted:-
Pinot Noir (Black) – 37%
Pinot Meuniere (Black) – 37%
Chardonnay (White) – 26%
Notes:- Most blends are two parts of Black to on e part of white but sometimes Champagne is made entirely from black grapes and labeled as
Blanc de Noir.
When it is made from Chardonnay only then sold as Blanc de Blanc.
(i) The Harvest: – Due to its northerly situation the harvest takes place around mid- October. The harvesting is still done by hand in Champagne but once the traditional sorting into shallow trays called “osiers” is rarely carried out today. The sorting of grapes is done as a legal requirement due to rot being the regular problem.
(ii) Pressing:- During pressing , desteming is not done because their stem material causes network of canals through which juices rapidly drains. The modern horizontal presses, both hydraulic and pneumatic presses are used. But trails have recently proved the best press is still the tradition Pressoir Coquard and modern computer controlled versions are used. The first pressing is called “Cuvee”, second pressing “taille”.
(iii) First fermentation: – It results in dry, still wine very acidic in taste. It must be neutral in character for the subtle influence of 2nd fermentation to work their effect on the flavour.
In case Champagne Malolactic fermentation is carried out ( Converts hard Malic acid into soft lactic acid) stainless steel vats are used for fermentation nowadays (traditionally it was carried out in wooden casks/vats).
(iv) Assemblage/Blending:- It is a matter of blending the characteristics of two or more of three available grape varieties.
(v) Racking:- After the fermentation is complete, the wine is placed in casks, barrels or tanks. The lees particles settle in the casks. From time to time the wine is racked or transferred to new casks or tanks, leaving the lees behind so that the racked wine can settle further. This can be done several times until it is clear and lees to be removed, some wines need to be filtered.
(vi) The second fermentation:- It is actually the essence of Methode’ Champnoise and is the only way to produce fully sparkling wine.
After the blended wine has undergone its final racking, liqueur de tirage or bottling liquor is added.
(Liquor de tirage – Still wine+ Sugar+ Selected yeast & Clarifying agent).
The amount of sugar added depends on the degree of effervescence required and the amount of sugar presence in the wine. The wines are bottled and capped with a temporary closure (which is used to be cork secured with metal clip known as Agrafe’). But a crown cap used nowadays takes place between 10 days to three months.
(vii) Remauge:- After the desired second fermentation completion, the bottles are transferred to “pupitres” to undergo remauge (pair of heavy ,hinged, rectangular boards, each containing 60 holes which have been cut at an angle to enable the bottle to be held by necks in any position in 90* between horizontal and vertical (neck pointing downwards).
It is method of riddling the bottles to loosen sediment and falls in several sticky layers down to bottle surface. By hand it takes about eight weeks. But nowadays many companies use computerized 504 bottle pallets that perform the task in just eight days.
Sur-latte – Stage in “Pupitre” where bottle is placed horizontally in the Pupitre. Each time remveur swiftly rotates the bottle backward and forward to dislodge the sediment without disturbing it. It tilts the bottle to encourage it to slide down towards the neck until it rests just above crown cap.
(viii) Ageing the wine:- After remauge the wine undergoes a period f ageing “ Sur Point” ( a full inverted position) before sediment is removed.
Minimum for non-vintage- 15 months or 18-30 months.
For Vintage – 3 Years after harvest.
(ix) Digorgement – Removal of sediment from wine. It includes the immersion of bottle neck into freezing brine. The sediments make pallet of ice. When crown cap is removed the pallet comes out due to internal pressure of the bottle. A little is lost in this process.
Now, liqueur d’expedition is added to fill the bottle.
(x) Corking:- Now the corking is done; the cylindrical cork is inserted halfway, after which the metal cap is placed over with a pulverizing blow that gives the cork its special mushroom like shape. Now a wire muzzle is then then used to secure the cork to the bottle. It is always worth giving any good Champagne a year or two of extra ageing.
Most Champagne is made and sold by Champagne houses.
The biggest and most famous hoses are known as Grande Marques (Big brands).
Heidsiek and co. Monopole
Moet et Chandon
Note– Pressure inside the Champagne bottle is 6Kg/ cm2.
CIVC(Comite’ interprofessional du vin de Champagne)- It is governing body responsible for ensuring that traditionally high production standards are maintained. Also deal with the general marketing and promotion of the wine including production of the name Champagne.
Difference between Champagne and Sparkling wine –
1. Champagne is a Sparkling wine from the Champagne region of a France.
2. Three special types of grapes are used in making Champagne. i.e. Pinot Noir, Pinot Meuniere and Chardonnay.
3. Method de Champnoise is only used in making Champagne.
4. Every Champagne is a sparkling wine.
For example – Dom Perignon, Moet Chandon, Krug, Mumm, Lansen etc.
1. Sparkling wine is a wine which can be prepared anywhere in the world.
2. Any grapes can be used in making sparkling wine like Aligotes, Merlot, Zinfandel etc.
3. Tank method, Impregnation method or even method de chamnoise can also be used in making sparkling wine.
4. Sparkling wine is not a champagne.
For example – Asti spumante, Hekt, Espumante, Marquise de Pampadur.
Manufacturing of the Champagne taught under Hotel Management course at RBU which is one of the top University in Punjab
Hotel Management industry is an ever evolving industry and courses offered by Rayat Bahra University under Hotel Management are:
Bachelor of Hotel Management
Bachelor Of Hotel Management & Catering Technology
Sky rocket your career with Best University in Chandigarh Rayat Bahra University